Strong political will and easy to scale technology have set Odisha on a path to 100% faecal sludge management

Odisha's FSSM Journey


FSSM in Odisha started in 2015 in two towns of the State – Dhenkanal and Angul – under Project Nirmal which was later scaled up to the nine AMRUT towns in 2017. Today, Odisha has emerged as a pioneer in implementing the FSSM program in urban areas across the State

Sanitation in Odisha - Key Facts


Laying the strategic foundation
Project Nirmal

Implemented by Practical Action and Centre for Policy Research in the towns of Angul and Dhenkanal. This Project demonstrated sustainable sanitation service delivery for small towns leading to an increased coverage of households and institutions by enabling institutional and financial arrangements and increased private sector participation.


Firm commitment by the Government
Odisha Urban Septage Management Guidelines

It is a set of operative guidelines for ULBs to implement FSSM interventions across the value chains

Odisha Urban Sanitation Policy (OUSP) and the revised Odisha Urban Sanitation Strategy (OUSS)

Both envisioned the states cities and towns to be clean, sanitized and healthy, with septage management recognized as a key intervention

Capacity Building

A first detailed assessment of capacities across all levels of the government was conducted under project Nirmal. This encompassed preparing training manuals, materials and guidelines on sanitation.

This was followed by, capacity building workshops, orientations of the ULB officials, district administration, community-based organizations (CBOs) and cesspool emptier vehicle operators across towns and cities


Diffusion and Scale-up
National Workshop on FSSM

The National Workshop on FSSM, organized by the Government of Odisha, NFSSM Alliance and Ernst & Young LLP aimed at sharing the experience of Odisha and learning from other states for implementing FSSM

FSSM Regulations

"The 2018 FSSM Regulations lay emphasis on construction of septic tanks/pits, cleaning of septic tanks/pits, septage transport vehicles or cesspool emptier vehicles, designated disposal sites, septage treatment plants, general administration and violations as well as penalties.

The FSSM Regulations 2018 are now being passed by all 114 ULBs of the state through a council and corporation resolutions

Through robust regulatory frameworks for its urban local bodies, the state ensured provisions for periodic desludging, safe transportation and proper treatment of faecal wastes"

Infrastructure and Technology

DEWATS chosen as a preferred technology for its minimum electricity requirement and ease of operations. Investments made to procure large and small cesspool emptier vehicles which can access even the narrow lanes in villages and ensure safe emptying and transportation of the contained faecal waste

Septage treatment plant in Bhubaneshwar, highlighting a cost-effective, low technology model that can be adopted by cities across India and the world

Implementation and Scale up

Operationalization of 6 Septage Treatment Plants and FSSM Scale up to 114 Urban Local Bodies


Monitoring and course-correction
Establishment of Septage Cell at Odisha Water Supply and Sewerage Board (OWSSB)

The Sanitation cell set up at state level provided technical guidance in implementation of FSSM across cities. Further, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms were established, through multiple committees at each level, be it at state, district, ULB or ward level, for a sustainable impact.

Implementation and Scale up

Operationalization and ISO certification of 10 Septage Treatment Plants


Community Involvement and Sustainability
Sanitation Entrepreneurs
  • Women SHGs are involved in demand generation for mechanized desludging – They are paid an incentive by the operator for every trip generated

  • With the objective of further integrating communities in entrepreneurial ventures, The Housing & Urban Development Minister signed contracts with women and transgender SHGs and handed over operations & maintenance of SeTPs in 8 cities

Implementation and Scale up

Operationalization of 11 Septage Treatment Plants


Completion of treatment targets (Forecasted)
Operationalisation of 98 SeTPs
100% treatment of black water in State

FSSM Milestones in Odisha

Focus areas supporting Odisha's FSSM achievements

About the
NFSSM Alliance

The National Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (NFSSM) Alliance was convened in January 2016. The Alliance was convened to build consensus around faecal sludge and septage management. The Alliance with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation works in close collaboration with the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs and helped design a national policy on FSSM.​

and support