Click here for an introduction to
Maharashtra’s journey to FSSM
Maharashtra’s FSSM Journey


With a mission to take Maharashtra to greater heights and reach ODF++, the FSM efforts have been led by the local governments and facilitated by the State Government who have ensured trainings, workshops and processes that are streamlined for developing model cities and sustaining the ODF+/ ++ efforts in the state


Early efforts in FSSM – Pre-SBM
Assessment System
  • Performance Assessment System for urban water and sanitation implemented annually across all cities by CWAS in partnership with the Govt. of Maharashtra and AIILSG (All India Institute of Local Self Government). PAS began introducing indicators on onsite sanitation and equity in addition to water supply, sewerage and solid waste services.

  • Prepared performance improvement plans across 15 cities with ODF components. Towards Open defecation free cities in Maharashtra (Pre-SBM era)

    • Making cities ODF – Case of Satara and Mahad

    • Performance improvement plans for 15 Class A cities of Maharashtra for ODF (Presentation)

    • City Sanitation Plans in 4 cities in partnership with MJP proposed FSSM as a suitable solution along with ODF through own toilet schemes (Framework for City-wide Sanitation Assessment and Planning (Presentation)

    • City Sanitation Plans for cities of Maharashtra were developed:

  • Support was provided to Wai under the City Wide Inclusive Sanitation program to build a model inclusive city which safely manages and treats human waste


The ODF Journey
Swachh Maharashtra Mission Urban was launched
  • The Political Will of the State representatives was a leading contributor to the FSSM momentum in the State

  • Keeping in mind the objective of to make cities Open Defecation Free, Sustaining ODF, and moving from ODF+ to ODF++ ; all city managers were encouraged to prioritize access and use of own toilets and implementing plans for safe management of faecal waste

  • Maharashtra was the first state to define ODF city

  • Maharashtra’s ODF, ODF+, ODF++ framework lists safe collection and treatment of FS for achieving ODF++ status. –
    (Link to Portal)

  • Maharashtra’s approach for making cities ODF: A Mission led by “Local Governments” and facilitated by the “State Government”


ODF Achieved: Long term Vision of FSSM!
500,000 toilets were constructed;
12000+ Community toilets constructed
Urban Maharashtra was
declared Open Defecation
Free on 1st October 2017–

All 384 urban local bodies of the state were declared ODF

Behaviour change
to ensure upkeep of toilets
  • ‘OD Watch’ Campaign was launched to focus efforts toward behaviour change and ensure usage and upkeep of toilets

  • Government of Maharashtra issued a charter to focus on ODF-Sustainability and Moving towards ODF+/++ by ensuring collection and adequate treatment of human faecal waste Link to Portal

  • Multiple Government Resolutions were passed which enabled ODF sustainability in the cities. Government resolutions covered areas of land availability, performance linked financing for cities, and construction specifications for different kinds of toilets to maintain quality of construction

City level success stories

Success Stories from Wai and Sinnar

  • Wai and Sinnar in Maharashtra, chosen as two pilot cities out of the CSP exercise, to move toward ODF++ , became first cities in India to execute scheduled desludging, along with many other initiatives such as setting up the first FSTPs.

  • Wai city demonstrates citywide inclusive sanitation

  • Sinnar town is a model to take other towns and cities across Maharashtra from Open Defecation Free to ODF+ and ODF++. –

Inspiring policy change
  • SBM ODF+ ,ODF++ framework
  • Contribution to National FSSM policy
  • Wai and Sinnar declared ODF++
  • Other cities continue to retain ODF status; ODF sustainability certification revisited biannually
  • Continuous monitoring and implementation support for quality execution of FSTPs in Maharashtra
  • ULBs have initiated to move towards becoming net-zero energy facilities


Strategy for State-wide Diffusion
Building City wide
FSSM Plans

The UDD, Govt. of Maharashtra signs MoU with BMGF to support Swachh Maharashtra Mission and establishes TSU with CWAS, which provides guidance and support in implementation of FSSM plans in the cities of Maharashtra.

Systematic approach
for building faecal waste treatment infrastructure:

Government of Maharashtra takes a two-pronged approach toward statewide FSSM strategy:

  1. Co-Treatment at own/ nearby STP,
  2. Setting up independent FSTP

Building foundational knowledge on Faecal Sludge Management for State-ULBs:

Introduction to FSSM: Several workshops were conducted to introduce implementation of Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant and its O&M. Manual for operations and maintenance of FSTPs provided to all the ULBs, which details plant management and desludging operations. Read More

Building capacity to initiate implementation: Training urban local bodies to devise ODF++ frameworks; and support with land approvals, financing capital, assessment of demand, establishing timelines for operations.

Deciding FSM technology: Assessment of technologies for statewise FSTPs. 6 prototype technologies developed and vetted by NEERI. Development and adoption of simple non-mechanical technology for FSTPs with 3 levels of designs based on population category of cities. Read More


Scaling co-treatment
Assessment for possibilities
of co-treatment and clustering

Government of Maharashtra passed a directive on Co-Treatment, thereby directing treatment of faecal sludge of 71 ULBs at nearby STPs


Scaling up independent FSTPs
Government Resolutions passed for building individual FSTPs
  • 300+ ULBs to have their own FSTPs and developed state FSSM strategy. Detailed approach laid out toward building FSTPs; from identifying model DPR technologies, technology selection and vetting, Technical sanctions, workshops, constructions, to the end O&M plan

  • Single Window approval and fast track implementation adopted along with a cost effective technology with minimal mechanization for setting up faecal sludge treatment facilities

    Read More about government resolutions

Capacity building workshops
  • Capacity building workshops were conducted across all divisions of Maharashtra by technical support unit, CWAS, CRDF in partnership with the Department of Urban Development

  • 800+ city officials trained in ODF++ preparedness through operationalizing faecal sludge treatment plants and improving desludging services.

Financing of FSTPs
  • Leveraging 14th FC Grants to set up the independent FSTPs, which entirely depend on on-site sanitation systems

  • ULBs are responsible for operation and maintenance of FSTPs. Few ULBs in Maharashtra levy sanitation tax to partially recover operation and maintenance cost for FSM services.

Monitoring and Evaluation

Sustained FSSM service provision at scale through various mechanisms

  • State wide training workshop
  • FSTP operations and maintenance
  • State level monitoring system
  • Quality assurance framework
  • Standard operating procedures for desludging
  • A state-wide monitoring system and dashboard developed to track the implementation of FSSM plan.
  • Urban Development Department conducts regular review meetings to track the progress at city, district, division and state levels. On-call assistance provided by technical experts to guide the ULB officials during the implementation and operation of FSTPs
Making sanitation safe and Inclusive

Sustained FSSM service provision at scale through various mechanisms

  • Online webinar was organized to sensitise Elected Women Representatives (EWRs) for effective functioning and participation in local governance focusing on FSSM. 50+ ULBs women representatives were sensitized. Read more

  • ULBs initiated measures for improving the Safety of Sanitation Workers, including PPE related clauses in contracts related to replacement and monitoring of PPEs. It also sensitized the san workers through various workshops on gender sensitization of workers, health and safety camps. Sensitization workshop at ULB levels on municipal acts, FSSM, gender inclusivity, MHM aspects where the executives & heads of all departments participate. Read more

  • Efforts towards engaging SHGs for the operations and maintenance of FSTPs

  • Study was conducted at ULB level to assess the sanitation service delivery using an ‘ecosystem approach’ for analysing the service delivery elements and focused on understanding the status of gender inclusion in sanitation service delivery. This helped in enhancing the understanding of the situation, causes and enablers, as well as to leverage the critical reflection and knowledge. Read more

  • A compendium is prepared showcasing Gender inclusive good practices from the Maharashtra state. These are cases where urban local bodies (ULBs) have taken proactive initiatives for engaging women in sanitation, and several cases from a lens of gender inclusion by building the agency of women to take leadership roles and engage with local institutions. It also captures initiatives where ULBs have partnered with civil society organizations for making sanitation service delivery inclusive and gender friendly. Read more

  • A compendium showcasing interventions taken by WMC (Wai Municipal Council) with support from CWAS with interventions across the sanitation value chain not only for providing access but more on developing agency and moving towards transformation for women. It captures several interventions from a lens of gender inclusion by building the agency of women to take leadership roles and engage with local institutions. Read more


2020 in Numbers
2019 2020 2021
Water+ - - 1
ODF++ 9 116 212
ODF+ 142 216 160
Operational FSTPs 50+ FSTP
constructed and
101 operational
FSTPs and ~100
upcoming FSTPs
179 operational
FSTPs and ~60+
upcoming FSTPs

Maharashtra ranks No. 1 in having maximum ODF+ Cities and No. 2 in having maximum ODF++ Cities

FSSM Milestones in Maharashtra

Focus areas supporting Maharashtra's FSSM achievements

About the
NFSSM Alliance

The National Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (NFSSM) Alliance was convened in January 2016. The Alliance was convened to build consensus around faecal sludge and septage management. The Alliance with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation works in close collaboration with the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs and helped design a national policy on FSSM.​

and support